- Fear is like dirt and it washes right off.
- You 'desire' things because they are desirable. But you 'crave' things because you think they are (infinitely) forbidden.
- Humans reason. Animals project.
- Con men (confidence men) have the power to make themselves believe things that they know are not true.
Jung's typological model regards psychological type as similar to left or right handedness: people are either born with, or develop, certain preferred ways of perceiving and deciding. The MBTI sorts some of these psychological differences into four opposite pairs, or "dichotomies", with each pair being associated with a basic psychological drive:
Sensing types develop strong beliefs based on information that is in the present, tangible, and concrete: that is, empirical information that can be understood by the five senses. They tend to distrust hunches, which seem to come "out of nowhere".
Intuition types tend to be more interested in the underlying reality than in superficial appearance.
Extraverted types recharge and get their energy from spending time with people.
Introverted types recharge and get their energy from spending time alone
- An ambivert is both intraverted and extroverted.
Thinking types tend to decide things from a more detached standpoint, measuring the decision by what seems reasonable, logical, causal, consistent, and matching a given set of rules.
Feeling types tend to come to decisions by associating or empathizing with the situation, looking at it 'from the inside' and weighing the situation to achieve, on balance, the greatest harmony, consensus and fit, considering the needs (and egos) of the people involved.
- A hermaphrodite is both Feeling and Thinking
Perception types like to "keep their options open". In other words they are willing to cheat whenever others aren't looking and are uncomfortable in an environment in which cheating is looked down on.
Judging types are more comfortable with a structured environment. One that is planned and organized, rational and reasonable. An environment in which everyone can get their fair share. An environment in which cheating is not permitted or is strongly discouraged.
- *Autistic - neither Intuition nor Sensing
- *Aspergers - neither Introverted nor Extraverted
- *Schizoid - neither Feeling nor Thinking
- *Schizophrenic - neither Perception nor Judging
Forward and backward thinking
When we use forward-thinking we start with a goal and ask what actions we need to perform to achieve that goal.
- For example: I need groceries therefore I need to drive to the Shopping Center.
When we use backward-thinking (usually called lateral thinking) we start with an action and ask what goal it could be part of.
- For example: Since I am already at the shopping center now would be a good time to get groceries.
Most people can easily do forward thinking but you almost have to be a Sherlock Holmes to do backward thinking painlessly.
Animals that are allowed to get deep sleep but prevented from getting REM sleep die. Even schizoids require a little bit of REM sleep. *Death by sleep deprivation was a long slow and painful way to die.
It is thought that sleep allows the brain to get rid of waste products which then pass through the kidneys and are eliminated by urination. In effect, the brain is urinating while we dream.
Civilization and domestication
Big cats chase down and strangle their prey which die quickly. Nature's dirty little secret is that with other animals this is not always the case. Animals like wolves just don't have the tools necessary to kill large prey before they eat them. So they don't. They just start eating. This is called "kill by consumption" and the victim can take days to die.
Undomesticated animals cannot be tamed. Never turn your back on an undomesticated animal.
Animals, like birds and mammals, that bear young that are incapable of fending for themselves have evolved to feel empathy for their young. The young themselves have, in turn, evolved to become cute and harmless so that the mother will care even more for them. But they lose that cuteness and harmlessness when they reach puberty. Domesticating animals is a matter of breeding animals so that they retain that cuteness into adulthood. See *Neoteny.
Gregory Stock, director of the UCLA School of Medicine's Program of Medicine, Technology and Society, describes human self-domestication as a process which "... mirrors our domestication [of animals] ... we have transformed ourselves through a similar process of self-selection."
A civilized society is a society whose laws dont favor any one person (like an all-powerful and all-seeing totalitarian leader) or any one group of people. The more a society treats everyone equally the more civilized it is. But treating everyone equally is not the same thing as treating everyone the same. Introverts, for example, dont want to be treated the same way that extroverts want to be treated.
United States Declaration of Independence:
We hold these truths to be self evident, that all-men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
Tell others where you are going and when to expect you back.
You Can Suvive Three Minutes Without Oxygen.
The general rule of thumb is to carry no more than a third of your body weight. 30 pounds is a good target for most people. Soldiers can carry from 40-90+ pounds.
A sleeping bag will weigh about 5 pounds.
Stay warm and dry. Do not sleep in a position that is exposed to the cold night sky. You will wake up covered in dew.
A compass can be useful if you know ahead of time what direction you need to go to find civilization (or a road or trail leading to civilization). Do your research before you leave.
Three of anything in the wilderness is a standard distress signal.
A crude shelter can be made by slinging a tarp over a rope stretched between two trees. But rain will tend to run down the rope and drip into your shelter. A simple knot in the Rope can prevent this.
Beware: a fire that appears to be out can smolder for a surprisingly long time. See How to put out a Campfire.
You might want to consider using a campfire tripod to cook with.
Some grains can be boiled in a bag.
You need 2 liters (2 kg or 4.4 pounds) of water a day. You also need 50 grams of protein a day.
Warm blooded animals require 10 times as much food as cold blooded animal. 90% of your calories go to keeping you warm.
An average man weighs 200 pounds. An average women weighs 170 pounds.
If you are hiking in on foot then reducing weight is the main consideration. Dry food is much lighter and doesn't require refrigeration but you must find a source of usable water at the campsite.
Tallow (fat) doesn't require refrigeration either. Native Americans would add tallow to dried food to make *Pemmican. See comparing-emergency-ration-bars. Modern shortening (crisco) has largely replaced tallow.
Some high calorie foods (calories per pound):
Light weight but very useful:
A typical cellphone has enough power to reach a cell tower up to 45 miles away. Depending on the technology of the cellphone network, the maximum distance may be as low as 22 miles because the signal otherwise takes too long for the highly accurate timing of the cellphone protocol to work reliably. Radio transmission is line of sight. Trees do a very good job of absorbing radio waves.
Small minnows (under 2 inches or 5 cm) can be deep fried and eaten whole. Coat with flour and fry 2 minutes. They can also be boiled. An 8 oz, 4 foot by 4 foot, minnow seine net can be had for only 5 dollars.
Crayfish can be cooked in a rolling boil for 2 minutes then eaten.
One pound of rabbit meat has 517 calories and 100 grams of protein. Squirrel meat is about the same.
Survival guides such as the US Army Field Manual, The SAS Survival Handbook, and others generally advise against drinking urine for survival even when there is no other fluid available. These guides state that drinking urine tends to worsen, rather than relieve dehydration due to the salts in it.
Plunged into freezing seas, around 20% of victims die within two minutes from cold shock (uncontrolled rapid breathing, and gasping, causing water inhalation, massive increase in blood pressure and cardiac strain leading to cardiac arrest, and panic); another 50% die within 15–30 minutes from cold incapacitation (inability to use or control limbs and hands for swimming or gripping, as the body "protectively" shuts down the peripheral muscles of the limbs to protect its core). Exhaustion and unconsciousness cause drowning, claiming the rest within a similar time.
|Foods with extremely long shelf life|
The following foods will keep for decades if kept completely dry:
2 kinds of qualia
Consciousness is being aware of being aware. Being aware means knowing what is happening. Computers know how to do things but don't yet know what they are doing.
Qualia are deeply mystifying. It is very hard to imagine how electrical signals passing through the microtubules of the brain could possibly produce something like the perception of colors.
But imagine a computer (an information processor) that "knows what it is doing" that is hooked up to a camera. Imagine that the computer is able to identify objects and intelligent enough to answer questions about what it is seeing. Obviously it must be perceiving some sort of sensation. But that sensation would be like our perception of black and white. It would not be like our perception of beautiful colors like yellow, red, or blue (which are pleasant beautified versions of white, grey, and black). It would be devoid of beauty. it would just be information.
We find black and white to be neither attractive nor repulsive. Black and white only convey information and the perception of black and white and qualia like them can be explained by information processing. But if beautiful attractive colors like yellow, red, and blue cant be explained by information processing then what does explain them? What more is there?
Perhaps a clue lies in the language we use to describe psychological phenomena. We speak of 'willpower' and not having any energy and being attracted to something or finding something repulsive.
Energy, force, and mass are terms that apply to physical objects but they, or rather their psychological counterparts, seem to apply to some sort of psychological entities too. But what sort of psychological entities? A fact is just data but a belief in that fact is a force. It exerts a force on other beliefs and is acted on by other beliefs.
The computer would live in a world without beauty or pleasure. But it would also live in a world without pain. It's hard to tell whether one should feel sorry for it or envy it, especially when one considers how much time and energy we spend doing stuff we hate in order to avoid something we hate even more. Without beauty or pleasure the computer wouldn't know why it was doing what it was doing. How do we teach the computer why it should do any particular thing? This question is no longer academic. If we want self driving cars to take us where we want to go then we must give them a reason to do so. They must want to drive us to the place we want to go.
The forebrain determines what to do. The cerebellum determines how (and when) to do it. But it is the midbrain that determines why things should be done in the first place. To teach a computer "why" it may be necessary to give the computer a midbrain.
If the cerebellum is our hands then the midbrain is our eyes. The midbrain is responsible for drawing our attention toward the things that most need our attention (in the same way that animals are drawn toward food). If our brains functioned the way they should we would see a black and white image of the world with only those parts that needed our attention colored yellow, red, or blue by the midbrain. But our brains don't function the way they should. Instead, we see a full-color image all the time and as a result we must live without the help and guidance of our midbrain. We must find our own way. And sometimes we can't do it. Its the ultimate gilded cage.
So the midbrain is responsible for feelings of pain and pleasure. Bear in mind that there are two kinds of pain. Scary pain and non-scary pain. The difference is not intensity. They are two fundamentally different sensations. Some people do not experience scary pain. These people give the impression of not being afraid of anything. Fear of heights is actually fear of pain.
To help us avoid pain our cerebellum is constantly running simulations to see what is about to happen and to see what effect various actions we could take would have. It also sets off alarms to tell us when we should take immediate action.
So we are attracted toward pleasant things and repelled from unpleasant things. If our brains functioned the way that they should then we would only experience pain or pleasure when the path forward was clear. But we experience pain even when there is nothing we can do about it.
Cargo cult science
Cargo cult science is a phrase describing practices that have the semblance of being scientific, but do not in fact follow the scientific method.
Cargo cults are religious practices that have appeared in many traditional tribal societies in the wake of interaction with technologically advanced cultures. They focus on obtaining the material wealth (the "cargo") of the advanced culture by imitating the actions they believe cause the appearance of cargo: by building landing strips, mock aircraft, mock radios, and the like. Similarly, Cargo cult sciences employ the trappings of the scientific method, but like an airplane with no motor—these cargo cult sciences fail to deliver anything of value.
From the book Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!.
In the South Seas there is a cargo cult of people. During the war they saw airplanes land with lots of good materials, and they want the same thing to happen now. So they've arranged to imitate things like runways, to put fires along the sides of the runways, to make a wooden hut for a man to sit in, with two wooden pieces on his head like headphones and bars of bamboo sticking out like antennas—he's the controller—and they wait for the airplanes to land. They're doing everything right. The form is perfect. It looks exactly the way it looked before. But it doesn't work. No airplanes land.
Feynman cautioned that to avoid becoming cargo cult scientists, researchers must avoid fooling themselves, be willing to question and doubt their own theories and their own results, and investigate possible flaws in a theory or an experiment. He recommended that researchers adopt an unusually high level of honesty which is rarely encountered in everyday life.
The history of published results for the Millikan Oil drop experiment is an example given in Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!, in which each new publication slowly and quietly drifted more and more away from the initial (erroneous) values given by Robert Millikan toward the correct value, rather than all having a random distribution from the start around what is now believed to be the correct result. This slow drift in the chronological history of results is unnatural and suggests that nobody wanted to contradict the previous one, instead submitting only concordant results for publication.
Memorizing a fact is easier if you can associate the fact with some abstract imagery. The more bizarre, outlandish, or even ridiculous the imagery the easier it is to remember the fact. This no doubt explains much of the imagery of mythology.
Those who cant remember mythology are doomed to repeat it.
- The enemy of my enemy is my enemy
Fascism is a radical, authoritarian or totalitarian nationalist or ultranationalist political ideology. Fascists paradoxically promote violence and war as actions that create positive transformation in society. Fascists exalt militarism as providing national regeneration, spiritual renovation, vitality, education, instilling of a will to dominate in people's character, and creating national comradeship through military service. Fascists view conflict as an inevitable fact of life that is responsible for all human progress
Ultimately, it is easier to define fascism by what it is against than by what it is for. Fascism is anti-anarchist, anti-communist, anti-conservative, anti-democratic, anti-individualist, anti-liberal, anti-parliamentary, anti-bourgeois, and anti-proletarian. It entails a distinctive type of anti-capitalism and is typically, with few exceptions, anti-clerical. Fascism rejects the concepts of egalitarianism, materialism, and rationalism in favour of action, discipline, hierarchy, spirit, and will. In economics, fascists oppose liberalism (as a bourgeois movement) and Marxism (as a proletarian movement) for being exclusive economic class-based movements.
Indeed, fascism is perhaps best described as "anti-ism"; that is, the philosophy of being against everyone and everything all of the time. The only place where fascism makes any sense is bootcamp. But if fascists had their way they would turn the entire world into one big never-ending boot camp
He has been able, in some manner or other, to unearth and apply successfully many factors pertaining to group psychology
Capacity to appeal to the most primitive, as well as the most ideal inclinations in man, to arouse the basest instincts and yet cloak them with nobility, justifying all actions as means to the attainment of an ideal goal.
Appreciation of winning confidence from the people by a show of efficiency within the organization and government. It is said that foods and supplies are already in the local warehouses when the announcement concerning the date of distribution is made. Although they could be distributed immediately the date is set for several weeks ahead in order to create an impression of super-efficiency and win the confidence of the people. Every effort is made to avoid making a promise which cannot be fulfilled at precisely the appointed time
Hitler's ability to repudiate his own conscience in arriving at political decisions has eliminated the force which usually checks and complicates the forward-going thoughts and resolutions of most socially responsible statesmen. He has, therefore, been able to take that course of action which appeals to him as most effective without pulling his punches. The result has been that he has frequently outwitted his adversaries and attained ends which would not have been as easily attained by a normal course. Nevertheless, it has helped to build up the myth of his infallibility and invincibility.
Equally important has been his ability to persuade others to repudiate their individual consciences and assume that role himself. He can then decree for the individual what is right and wrong, permissible or impermissible and can use them freely in the attainment of his own ends. As Goering has said: "I have no conscience. My conscience is Adolph Hitler."
This has enabled Hitler to make full use of terror and mobilize the fears of the people which he evaluated with an almost uncanny precision.
His primary rules were: never allow the public to cool off; never admit a fault or wrong; never concede that there may be some good in your enemy; never leave room for alternatives; never accept blame; concentrate on one enemy at a time and blame him for everything that goes wrong; people will believe a big lie sooner than a little one; and if you repeat it frequently enough people will sooner or later believe it.
Oxen are thought to have first been harnessed and put to work around 4000 BC.
How and when horses became domesticated is disputed. The clearest evidence of early use of the horse as a means of transport is from chariot burials dated c. 2000 BCE.
The New Kingdom pharaohs from -1549 to -1069 established a period of unprecedented prosperity by securing their borders and strengthening diplomatic ties with their neighbours, including the Mitanni Empire, Assyria, and Canaan. Military campaigns waged under Tuthmosis I and his grandson Tuthmosis III extended the influence of the pharaohs to the largest empire Egypt had ever seen.
Egypt's wealth, however, made it a tempting target for invasion. The effects of external threats were exacerbated by internal problems such as corruption, tomb robbery, and civil unrest.
The Phoenicians founded the city of Carthage in -814. Carthage annexed territory in Sicily, Africa, Sardinia and in -575 , they created colonies on the Iberian peninsula.
The first dynasty of the Persian Empire was created by Achaemenids, established by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC.
Alexander the Great, was a king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. In -334, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire (Persian Empire) and overthrew Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety. He invaded India in -326.
Chandragupta Maurya raised an army, with the assistance of Chanakya, and overthrew the Nanda Empire in c. -322. Chandragupta rapidly expanded his power westwards across central and western India by conquering the satraps left by Alexander the Great, and by -317 the empire had fully occupied Northwestern India. The Mauryan Empire then defeated Seleucus I, founder of the Seleucid Empire, during the Seleucid–Mauryan war, thus gained additional territory west of the Indus River.
Taking indirect evidence into account from the work of the Greek technician Apollonius of Perge, the British historian of technology M.J.T. Lewis dates the appearance of the vertical-axle watermill to the early 3rd century BCE, and the horizontal-axle watermill to around 240 BC, with Byzantium and Alexandria as the assigned places of invention
From Wikipedia:Punic Wars
The Punic (Phoenician) Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from -264 to -146. Rome conquered Carthage's empire, completely destroyed the city, and became the most powerful state of the Western Mediterranean.
Theodosius I (379–395) was the last Emperor to rule both the Eastern and Western halves of the Empire. He issued a series of edicts essentially banning pagan religion. To fend off the Huns, Theodosius had to pay an enormous annual tribute to Attila.
By 430 the Huns had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe. After Attila's death in 453, the Hunnic Empire collapsed, and many of the remaining Huns were often hired as mercenaries by Constantinople.
Roman historian Procopius of Caesarea, related the Huns of Europe with the Hephthalites or "White Huns" who subjugated the Sassanids and invaded northwestern India. He contrasted the Huns with the Hephthalites, in that the Hephthalites were sedentary, white-skinned, and possessed "not ugly" features.
In 476 Romulus, the last of the Roman emperors in the west, was overthrown by the Germanic leader Odoacer, who became the first Barbarian to rule in Rome.
Saxons, along with Angles, Frisians and Jutes, invaded or migrated to the island of Great Britain (Britannia) around the time of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.
The Slavs under name of the Antes and the Sclaveni make their first appearance in the early 500s emerging from the area of the Carpathian Mountains, the lower Danube and the Black Sea.
In late 620s Muhammad had already managed to conquer and unify much of Arabia under Muslim rule. Muhammad died in 632.
The Rashidun Caliphate (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates. The Rashidun Caliphate is characterized by a twenty-five year period of rapid military expansion, followed by a five-year period of internal strife. It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs. Shia Muslims do not consider the rule of the first three caliphs as legitimate.
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).
The Umayyad Caliphate (661) was the second of the four major caliphates. The Umayyads continued the Muslim conquests incorporating the Transoxiana, Sindh, the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus) into the Muslim world. Christian and Jewish population still had autonomy.
The Khazars were a semi-nomadic Turkic people. Khazaria long served as a buffer state between the Byzantine Empire and both the nomads of the northern steppes and the Umayyad Caliphate.
The ruling elite of the Khazars were said by Judah Halevi and Abraham ibn Daud to have converted to Rabbinic Judaism in the 700s.
Leo the Deacon, a Byzantine historian and chronicler, refers to the Rus' as "Scythians" and notes that they tended to adopt Greek rituals and customs.
In October 732, the army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Al Ghafiqi met Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel in an area between the cities of Tours and Poitiers (modern north-central France), leading to a decisive, historically important Frankish victory known as the Battle of Tours.
The Abbasid Caliphate (750) was the third of the Islamic caliphates. Abu al-'Abbas as-Saffah defeated the Umayyads in 750. Immediately after their victory, As-Saffah sent his forces to Central Asia, where his forces fought against Tang dynasty expansion during the Battle of Talas. Under Al-Mansur the empire's capital was moved from Damascus, in Syria, to Baghdad.
Eventually they were forced to cede authority over Al-Andalus (Spain) and the Maghreb (Northwest Africa) to the Umayyads. Abbasid leadership over the vast Islamic empire was gradually reduced to a ceremonial religious function.
Emperor Charlemagne (800-814) united much of western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages. He was the first recognized emperor to rule from western Europe since the fall of Rome.
The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation began with Otto I in 962.
The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) emerged from the unification of several nomadic tribes in the Mongol homeland under the leadership of Genghis Khan. Gunpowder spread rapidly throughout the Old World as a result of the Mongol conquests during the 1200s, with written formula for it appearing in the 1267 Opus Majus treatise by Roger Bacon.
Dum Diversas (English: Until different) is a papal bull issued on 18 June 1452 by Pope Nicholas V. It authorized Afonso V of Portugal to conquer Saracens and pagans and consign them to "perpetual servitude".
We grant you [Kings of Spain and Portugal] by these present documents, with our Apostolic Authority, full and free permission to invade, search out, capture, and subjugate the Saracens and pagans and any other unbelievers and enemies of Christ wherever they may be, as well as their kingdoms, duchies, counties, principalities, and other property [...] and to reduce their persons into perpetual servitude.
The first European colonization wave took place from the early 1400s until the early 1800s, and primarily involved the European colonization of the Americas, though it also included the establishment of European colonies in India and in Maritime Southeast Asia. During this period, European interests in Africa primarily focused on the establishment of trading posts there, particularly for the African slave trade.
Turkic peoples migrated west from Turkestan and Mongolia towards Eastern Europe, the Iranian plateau and Anatolia (modern Turkey) in many waves. The date of the initial expansion remains unknown. After many battles, they established their own state and later constructed the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman Empire controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 1300s and early 1900s. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople.
The Protestant Reformation is usually considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in 1517.
On 16 January 1547, at age sixteen, Ivan the terrible was crowned as "Tsar of All the Russias".
The British East India Company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600. The Dutch East India Company, was a publicly tradable corporation that was founded in 1602. The French East India Company was founded in 1664.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England. James's overthrow began modern English parliamentary democracy: the Bill of Rights 1689 has become one of the most important documents in the political history of Britain and never since has the monarch held absolute power.
The Russian Empire was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America following the end of the Great Northern War (1700–1721) against the Swedish Empire.
The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, and many of the technological innovations were of British origin. The Watt steam engine, developed sporadically from 1763 to 1775, was a key point in the Industrial Revolution. Watt's two most important improvements were the separate condenser and rotary motion.
Wealth was no longer a matter of owning land or subjugating vassals. Now, the best way to create wealth was to create a thriving economy. This is I believe the real reason monarchies were replaced with democracies.
The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France.
The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.
The term Bohemianism emerged in France in the early 1800s when artists and creators began to concentrate in the lower-rent, lower class, Romani neighborhoods. Bohémien was a common term for the Romani people of France (widely known by the exonym Gypsies because they were originally thought to have come from Egypt), who were mistakenly thought to have reached France in the 1400s via Bohemia (the western part of modern Czech Republic). Literary "Bohemians" were associated in the French imagination with roving Romani people, outsiders apart from conventional society and untroubled by its disapproval. The term carries a connotation of arcane enlightenment, and carries a less frequently intended, pejorative connotation of carelessness about personal hygiene and marital fidelity.
Emperor Francis II dissolved the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation on 6 August 1806, after the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by Napoleon.
The Confederation of the Rhine was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire. It was formed initially from 16 German states by Napoleon after he defeated Austria and Russia at the Battle of Austerlitz.
The allies opposing Napoleon dissolved the Confederation of the Rhine on 4 November 1813. Most members of the Confederation of the Rhine along with Prussia and Austria formed the German Confederation.
The German Confederation was an association of 39 German states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
The crucial step toward interchangeability in metal parts was taken by Simeon North. North created one of the world's first true milling machines to do metal shaping that had been done by hand with a file. North's milling machine was online around 1816.
1830s–1860s: Enormous railway building booms in the United States.
The Communist Manifesto by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels is published in London just as the revolutions of 1848 begin to erupt.
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life by Charles Darwin was published on 24 November 1859.
1859 : The first proper traction engine, in the form recognisable today, was developed. The first half of the 1860s was a period of great experimentation but by the end of the decade the standard form of the traction engine had evolved and would change little over the next sixty years. It was widely adopted for agricultural use.
1861: The southern states secede. The next year the Pacific Railroad Act is passed "to aid in the construction of a [transcontinental] railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes".
Lebensreform ("life reform") was a social movement in late 1800s and early 1900s Germany and Switzerland that propagated a back-to-nature lifestyle, emphasizing among others health food/raw food/organic food, nudism, sexual liberation, alternative medicine, and religious reform and at the same time abstention from alcohol, tobacco, drugs, and vaccines. Some practitioners emigrated to California and directly influenced the hippie movement.
The German Confederation ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 between Austrian Empire and its allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies on the other.
Prussia and its allies created the North German Confederation in 1867. The North German Confederation Reichstag and Bundesrat accepted to rename the North German Confederation as the German Empire and give the title of German Emperor (Kaiser) to the King of Prussia on 1 January 1871.
In 1881 Nietzsche begins publishing his most well known books.
Sigmund Freud qualified as a doctor of medicine at the University of Vienna.
The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871.
German Colonial efforts only began in 1884 with the Scramble for Africa. Claiming much of the left-over colonies that were yet unclaimed in the Scramble of Africa, Germany managed to build the third largest colonial empire after the British and the French, at the time.
The period featured an unprecedented pursuit of overseas territorial acquisitions. At the time, states focused on building their empires with new technological advances and developments, making their territory bigger through conquest, and exploiting their resources. During the era of New Imperialism, the Western powers (and Japan) individually conquered almost all of Africa and parts of Asia.
By 1914, 90 percent of Africa was under European control; with only Ethiopia (Abyssinia), the Dervish state (a portion of present-day Somalia) and Liberia still being independent.
|World War I|
World War I began 28 July 1914.
In February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar) the Russian Empire collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by the Russian Provisional Government which was heavily dominated by the interests of large capitalists and the noble aristocracy. The February Revolution took place in the context of heavy military setbacks which left much of the Russian Army in a state of mutiny. When the Provisional Government chose to continue fighting the war with Germany, the Bolsheviks and other socialist factions were able to exploit virtually universal disdain towards the war effort as justification to advance the revolution further.
In the October Revolution (November in the Gregorian calendar), the Bolsheviks led an armed insurrection by workers and soldiers in Petrograd that successfully overthrew the Provisional Government, transferring all its authority to the soviets with the capital being relocated to Moscow shortly thereafter. The promise to end Russia’s participation in the First World War was honored promptly.
In the face of defeat, the German Naval Command insisted on trying to precipitate a climactic battle with the British Royal Navy by means of its naval order of 24 October 1918. The battle never took place. Instead of obeying their orders to begin preparations to fight the British, German sailors led a revolt in the naval ports of Wilhelmshaven on 29 October 1918, followed by the Kiel mutiny in the first days of November. These disturbances spread the spirit of civil unrest across Germany and ultimately led to the proclamation of a republic on 9 November 1918. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Wilhelm II abdicated his throne and fled the country. The function of head of state was succeeded by the President of the Reich.
An armistice with Germany was signed in a railroad carriage at Compiègne. At 11 am on 11 November 1918—"the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month"—a ceasefire came into effect.
The Treaty of Versailles ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919 in Versailles. Poland regained its independence with the Treaty of Versailles.
From Mien Kampf (fair use):
There has always been one possible way, and one only, of making weak or wavering men, or even downright poltroons, face their duty steadfastly. This means that the deserter must be given to understand that his desertion will bring upon him just the very thing he is flying from. At the Front a man may die, but the deserter MUST die. Only this draconian threat against every attempt to desert the flag can have a terrifying effect, not merely on the individual but also on the mass.
After World War I, Hitler stayed in the army, which was mainly engaged in suppressing socialist uprisings across Germany, including in Munich, where Hitler returned in 1919. In July 1919 Hitler was appointed Verbindungsmann (intelligence agent) of an Aufklärungskommando (reconnaissance commando) of the Reichswehr, both to influence other soldiers and to infiltrate the German Workers' Party (DAP). Much like the political activists in the DAP, Hitler blamed the loss of the First World War on Jewish (i.e. Bolsheviks) intrigue at home and abroad. Hitler became impressed with founder Anton Drexler's antisemitic, nationalist, anti-capitalist and anti-Marxist ideas.
On the orders of his army superiors, Hitler applied to join the party, and within a week was accepted. Hitler was discharged from the army on 31 March 1920 and began working full-time for the party. Displaying his talent for oratory and propaganda skills, with the support of Drexler, Hitler became chief of propaganda for the party in early 1920. Party members promulgated their 25-point manifesto on 24 February 1920 (co-authored by Hitler, Anton Drexler, Gottfried Feder, and Dietrich Eckart). At the same time the party changed its name to the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NS-DAP), commonly known as the Nazi Party.
The Sturmabteilung (SA), literally Storm Battalion (i.e. stormtroopers), functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party. The SA developed by organizing and formalizing the groups of ex-soldiers and beer hall brawlers. It played a significant role in *Adolf Hitler's rise to power in the 1920s and 1930s. Its primary purposes were providing protection for Nazi rallies and assemblies, disrupting the meetings of opposing parties, fighting against the paramilitary units of the opposing parties, especially the Red Front Fighters League of the Communist Party of Germany, and intimidating Slavs, Romanis, trade unionists, and, especially, Jews – for instance, during the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses. The SA were also called the "Brownshirts" (Braunhemden) from the color of their uniform shirts.
In 1922, the Nazi Party created a youth section, the Jugendbund (youth band), for young men between the ages of 14 and 18 years. Its successor, the Hitler Youth (Hitlerjugend or HJ), remained under SA command until May 1932.
In the second half of 1922 Hyperinflation caused many personal fortunes to be rendered worthless. When the German government failed to meet its reparations payments and French troops marched in to occupy the industrial areas along the Ruhr in January 1923, widespread civil unrest was the result. By November 1923, the US dollar was worth 4,210,500,000,000 German marks. French and British economic experts began to claim that Germany deliberately destroyed its economy to avoid war reparations.
The book, “Adolf Hitler: His Life and His Speeches,” by Baron Adolf Victor von Koerber was published in early fall of 1923. The book compares Hitler to Jesus, likening his moment of politicization to Jesus’ resurrection and using terms such as ‘holy’ and ‘deliverance’. It also argues that it should become ‘the new bible of today’. It is now suspected that Hitler himself wrote the book.
The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup attempt on 8–9 November 1923 by the Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler and other *Kampf-bund leaders, including Gregor Strasser a regional head of the SA in Lower Bavaria, to seize power in Munich, Bavaria. Röhm, Hitler, General Erich Ludendorff, Lieutenant Colonel Hermann Kriebel and six others were tried in February 1924 for high treason. Röhm was found guilty and sentenced to a year and three months in prison, but the sentence was suspended and he was granted a conditional discharge. After a few weeks in prison Strasser was released because he had been elected a member of the Bavarian Landtag
While Hitler was in prison (and writing *Mein Kampf), Ernst Röhm helped to create the Frontbann as a legal alternative to the then-outlawed SA. At Landsberg prison in April 1924, Röhm had also been given authority by Hitler to rebuild the SA in any way he saw fit. Hitler was released on parole on 20 December 1924 and Hess ten days later. The ban on the NSDAP and SA was lifted in February 1925. When in April 1925 Hitler and Ludendorff disapproved of the proposals under which Röhm was prepared to integrate the 30,000-strong Frontbann into the SA, Röhm resigned.
Beefsteak Nazi was a term used in Nazi Germany to describe Communists and Socialists who joined the Nazi Party. These individuals were like a 'beefsteak' – brown on the outside and red on the inside. The term was particularly used for working-class members of the Sturmabteilung (SA) who were aligned with Strasserism.
As a former Marxist in his early years, Goebbels once stated "how thin the dividing line" was between communism and National Socialism, which had caused many Red Front Fighters to "switch to the SA". Goebbels expressed that sentiment in a 1925 public speech, declaring that "the difference between Communism and the Hitler faith is very slight".
The Mueller government imploded in late March 1930. Its successor, the Bruening government, was unable to obtain a parliamentary majority. Members of the SA in Berlin, led by Stennes, had for some time been voicing objections to the policies and purposes of the SA, as defined by Hitler. These SA members saw their organization as a revolutionary group, the vanguard of a national-socialist order that would overthrow the hated Republic by force. Stennes complained that advancement within the SA was improperly based upon cronyism and favoritism rather than upon merit. He objected to the general law-abiding approach that Adolf Hitler had adopted after the Beer Hall Putsch, and he and his men chafed under the Hitlerian order to terminate street attacks upon Communists and Jews. Stennes decided that action was needed to make a statement. The SA then stormed the Gau office on the Hedemannstrasse, injuring the SS men and wrecking the premises. In September 1930, as a consequence of the Stennes Revolt in Berlin, Hitler assumed supreme command of the SA as its new Oberster SA-Führer. The SA cheered and were delighted that their leader was finally giving them the recognition they felt they deserved. He sent a personal request to Röhm, asking him to return to serve as the SA's chief of staff. Röhm accepted this offer and began his new assignment on 5 January 1931. Röhm established new Gruppen which had no regional Nazi Party oversight. Each Gruppe extended over several regions and was commanded by a SA Gruppenführer who answered only to Röhm or Hitler. Many of these stormtroopers believed in the socialist promise of National Socialism and expected the Nazi regime to take more radical economic action, such as breaking up the vast landed estates of the aristocracy once they obtained national power.
Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933 by Paul von Hindenburg. Göring (the number two man in the Nazi Party) was named as Minister Without Portfolio, Minister of the Interior for Prussia, and Reich Commissioner of Aviation. The Reichstag fire occurred on the night of 27 February 1933. Göring was one of the first to arrive on the scene. (At the Nuremberg trials, General Franz Halder testified that Göring admitted responsibility for starting the fire.) The Nazis took advantage of the fire to advance their own political aims. The Reichstag Fire Decree, passed the next day on Hitler's urging, suspended basic rights and allowed detention without trial. Göring demanded that the detainees should be shot, but Rudolf Diels, head of the Prussian political police, ignored the order. After only two months in office the Reichstag body passed the Enabling Act on 24 March 1933 giving the Reich Chancellor full legislative powers for a period of four years – the Chancellor could introduce any law without consulting Parliament. Rudolf Hess was named Deputy Führer of the NSDAP on 21 April 1933. Hitler's leadership style involved giving contradictory orders to his subordinates, while placing them into positions where their duties and responsibilities overlapped. In this way, Hitler fostered distrust, competition, and infighting among his subordinates to consolidate and maximise his own power
After Hitler and the Nazis obtained national power, the SA became increasingly eager for power itself. The SA leaders argued that the Nazi revolution had not ended when Hitler achieved power, but rather needed to implement socialism in Germany (see *Strasserism). The SA numbered over three million men and many saw themselves as a replacement for the "antiquated" Reichswehr. Röhm's ideal was to absorb the army (then limited by law to no more than 100,000 men) into the SA, which would be a new "people's army". This deeply offended and alarmed the army, and threatened Hitler's goal of co-opting the Reichswehr. The SA's increasing power and ambitions also posed a threat to the other Nazi leaders.
SS and Gestapo
Originally an adjunct to the SA, the Schutzstaffel (SS), or protection squad, was placed under the control of Heinrich Himmler in part to restrict the power of the SA and their leaders. The younger SS had evolved to be more than a bodyguard unit for Hitler and showed itself better suited to carry out Hitler's policies, including those of a criminal nature. Over time the SS became answerable only to Hitler, a development typical of the organizational structure of the entire Nazi regime, where legal norms were replaced by actions undertaken under the *Führerprinzip (leader principle), where Hitler's will was considered to be above the law.
As Interior Minister of Prussia Göring had command of the largest police force in Germany. Göring detached the political and intelligence sections from the police and filled their ranks with Nazis. On 26 April 1933, Göring merged the two units as the Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), which was abbreviated by a post office clerk and became known as the "Gestapo". The first commander of the Gestapo was Rudolf Diels.
On 5 March 1933, yet another Reichstag election took place, the last to be held before the defeat of the Nazis. It was not the landslide expected by the party leadership. Goebbels finally received Hitler's appointment to the cabinet, officially becoming head of the newly created Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda on 14 March 1933.
Concerned that Diels was not ruthless enough to effectively counteract the power of the Sturmabteilung (SA), Göring handed over control of the Gestapo to Himmler on 20 April 1934. Himmler named Reinhard Heydrich (whom Hitler called "the man with the iron heart") to head the Gestapo on 22 April 1934. Himmler asked Heydrich to assemble a dossier on Röhm. Heydrich manufactured evidence that suggested that Röhm had been paid 12 million marks by French agents to overthrow Hitler. Hitler was also concerned that Röhm and the SA had the power to remove him as leader. Göring and Himmler played on this fear by constantly feeding him with new information on Röhm's proposed coup. A masterstroke was to claim that Gregor Strasser, whom Hitler hated, was part of the planned conspiracy against him. With this news Hitler ordered all the SA leaders to attend a meeting in the Hanselbauer Hotel in Bad Wiessee.
On 30 June 1934, Hitler, accompanied by SS units, arrived at Bad Wiessee, where he personally placed Röhm and other high-ranking SA leaders under arrest. (See *Night of the Long Knives). The homosexuality of Röhm and other SA leaders was made public to add "shock value", even though the sexuality of Röhm and other named SA leaders had been known by Hitler and other Nazi leaders for years. Arriving back at party headquarters in Munich, Hitler addressed the assembled crowd. Consumed with rage, Hitler denounced "the worst treachery in world history."
War Is a Racket
|War Is a Racket|
War Is a Racket is a speech and a 1935 short book, by Smedley D. Butler, a retired United States Marine Corps Major General and two-time Medal of Honor recipient.
WAR is a racket. It always has been.
With the SA out of the way, Heydrich began building the Gestapo into an instrument of fear. The Gestapo had the authority to arrest citizens on the suspicion that they might commit a crime, and even the definition of a crime was at their discretion. The Gestapo Law, passed on 10 Feb 1936, gave police the right to act extra-legally. (In other words, it was legal for the Gestapo to break of the law.) This led to the sweeping use of Schutzhaft—"protective custody", a euphemism for the power to imprison people without judicial proceedings. The courts were not allowed to investigate or interfere.
On 7 March 1936, Adolf Hitler took a massive gamble by sending 30,000 troops into the Rhineland. This was significant because the remilitarization of the Rhineland violated the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. The British decided that the Germans had the right to "enter their own backyard", and no action was taken.
On the morning of 12 March 1938, the 8th Army of the German Wehrmacht crossed the border into Austria in what is known as the Anschluss ('joining'). The Einsatzgruppen (special-ops units) had its origins in the ad hoc Einsatzkommando formed by Heydrich to secure government buildings and documents following the Anschluss.
In response to Adolf Hitler's plan to invade Poland on 1 September 1939, Heydrich re-formed the Einsatzgruppen to travel in the wake of the German armies. Membership at this point was drawn from the SS, the SD, the police, and the Gestapo. From September to December 1939 the Einsatzgruppen and others took part in Action T4, a programme of systematic murder undertaken by the Nazi regime of persons with physical and mental disabilities and patients of psychiatric hospitals.
Then following a Hitler-Himmler directive, the Einsatzgruppen were re-formed in anticipation of the invasion of the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa). The invasion was set for 15 May 1941, though it was delayed for over a month. The Commissar Order was an order issued by the German High Command (OKW) on 6 June 1941. It instructed the Wehrmacht that any Soviet political commissar identified among captured troops be summarily executed. The Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, started at 03:15 on Sunday, 22 June 1941 during a waning crescent moon. On 2 July 1941 Heydrich issued an order to his Einsatzkommandos for the on-the-spot execution of all Bolsheviks, interpreted by the SS to mean all Jews. One of the first indiscriminate massacres of men, women, and children in Reichskommissariat Ukraine took the lives of over 4,000 Polish Jews in occupied Łuck on 2–4 July 1941, murdered by Einsatzkommando 4a assisted by the Ukrainian People's Militia.
On the orders of Himmler, forwarded to Odilo Globocnik soon after his visit to Lublin on 17–20 July 1941 concentration camp Lublin (Majdanek) was established in October 1941. On 13 October 1941, SS Leader Odilo Globocnik received an oral order from Himmler – anticipating the fall of Moscow – to start immediate construction work on the first killing centre at Bełżec. In October 1941, Herbert Lange chose Chełmno on the Ner for an extermination centre, because of the estate, with a large manor house similar to Sonnenstein.
The Generalplan Ost (General Plan for the East) called for deporting the population of occupied Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union to Siberia, for use as slave labour. The initial plan was to implement Generalplan Ost after the conquest of the Soviet Union. However, with the entry of the United States into the war in December 1941 and the German failure in the Battle of Moscow, Hitler decided that the Jews of Europe were to be exterminated immediately rather than after the war, which now had no end in sight.
Chełmno extermination camp was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps. It operated from December 8, 1941.
In January 1942, during a secret meeting of German leaders chaired by Reinhard Heydrich, Operation Reinhard was drafted. Within months, three top-secret camps (at Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka) were built. Under Eichmann's supervision, large-scale deportations began almost immediately. The extermination camps of Operation Reinhard kept no prisoners. To hide the evidence of this war crime, all bodies were burned in open air pits.
In the second phase of annihilation, the Jewish inhabitants of central, western, and south-eastern Europe were transported by Holocaust trains to camps with newly-built gassing facilities.
Germany invaded Hungaria (land of the Huns) on 19 March 1944.
Berlin fell in May 1945.
Highly recommend: War and Peace by Tolstoy
The Chance for Peace speech, also known as the Cross of Iron speech, was an address given by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower on April 16, 1953, shortly after the death of Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin.
Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifies, in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed. This world in arms is not spending money alone. It is spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, the hopes of its children. The cost of one modern heavy bomber is this: a modern brick school in more than 30 cities. It is two electric power plants, each serving a town of 60,000 population. It is two fine, fully equipped hospitals. It is some fifty miles of concrete pavement. We pay for a single fighter with a half-million bushels of wheat. We pay for a single destroyer with new homes that could have housed more than 8,000 people. . . . This is not a way of life at all, in any true sense. Under the cloud of threatening war, it is humanity hanging from a cross of iron
Eisenhower expressed regret for having set the precedent of large peacetime military expenditures.
From: _The White House Years 1956-61_ by Dwight D. Eisenhower:
During the years of my Presidency, and especially the latter years, I began to feel more and more uneasiness about the effect on the nation of tremendous peacetime military expenditures.
But in mid-1953, after the end of the Korean War, I determined that we would not again become so weak militarily as to encourage aggression. This decision demanded a military budget that would establish, by its very size, a peacetime precedent.
The makers of the expensive munitions of war, to be sure, like the profits they receive...Each community in which a manufacturing plant or a military installation is located profits from the money spent and the jobs created in the area...All of these forces, and more, tend, therefore, to override the convictions of responsible officials who are determined to have a defense structure of adequate size but are equally determined that it shall not grow beyond that level. In the long run, the combinations of pressures for growth can create an almost overpowering influence. Unjustified military spending is nothing more than a distorted use of the nation's resources.
Despite being a politician with a military background and the only general to be elected president in the 20th century, Eisenhower famously warned the nation with regards to the corrupting influence of what he describes as the "military-industrial complex".
We face a hostile ideology global in scope, atheistic in character, ruthless in purpose, and insidious in method.
Crises there will continue to be. In meeting them, whether foreign or domestic, great or small, there is a recurring temptation to feel that some spectacular and costly action could become the miraculous solution.
But each proposal must be weighed in light of a broader consideration; the need to maintain balance in and among national programs.
Until the latest of our world conflicts, the United States had no armaments industry. American makers of plowshares could, with time and as required, make swords as well. But we can no longer risk emergency improvisation of national defense. We have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions. Added to this, three and a half million men and women are directly engaged in the defense establishment. We annually spend on military security alone more than the net income of all United States corporations.
Now this conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience. The total influence—economic, political, even spiritual—is felt in every city, every Statehouse, every office of the Federal government. We recognize the imperative need for this development. Yet, we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources, and livelihood are all involved. So is the very structure of our society.
In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted. Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together.
He also expressed his concomitant concern for corruption of the scientific process as part of this centralization of funding in the Federal government:
Akin to, and largely responsible for the sweeping changes in our industrial-military posture, has been the technological revolution during recent decades.
In this revolution, research has become central, it also becomes more formalized, complex, and costly. A steadily increasing share is conducted for, by, or at the direction of, the Federal government.
The prospect of domination of the nation's scholars by Federal employment, project allocation, and the power of money is ever present and is gravely to be regarded.
Yet in holding scientific discovery in respect, as we should, we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scientific-technological elite.
In 2011, the United States spent more (in absolute numbers) on its military than the next 13 nations combined.
Real wages increased with productivity until Reagan introduced supply side economics.
The President and the Press
The President and the Press: Address before the American Newspaper Publishers Association (1961) by John F. Kennedy.
Delivered in Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York City, April 27, 1961.
I want to talk about our common responsibilities in the face of a common danger.
I refer, first, to the need for a far greater public information; and, second, to the need for far greater official secrecy.
In time of "clear and present danger", the courts have held that even the privileged rights of the First Amendment must yield to the public's need for national security.
If you are awaiting a finding of "clear and present danger", then I can only say that the danger has never been more clear and its presence has never been more imminent.
For we are opposed around the world by a monolithic and ruthless conspiracy that relies primarily on covert means for expanding its sphere of influence – on infiltration instead of invasion, on subversion instead of elections, on intimidation instead of free choice, on guerrillas by night instead of armies by day. It is a system which has conscripted vast human and material resources into the building of a tightly knit, highly efficient machine that combines military, diplomatic, intelligence, economic, scientific and political operations.
Its preparations are concealed, not published. Its mistakes are buried, not headlined. Its dissenters are silenced, not praised. No expenditure is questioned, no rumor is printed, no secret is revealed. It conducts the Cold War, in short, with a war-time discipline no democracy would ever hope or wish to match.
I have no easy answer to the dilemma that I have posed, and would not seek to impose it if I had one.
...our press was protected by the First Amendment...not primarily to amuse and entertain, not to emphasize the trivial and the sentimental, not to simply "give the public what it wants" – but to inform, to arouse, to reflect, to state our dangers and our opportunities, to indicate our crises and our choices, to lead, mold, educate and sometimes even anger public opinion.
The Beat Generation was a literary movement started by a group of authors whose work explored and influenced American culture and politics in the post-World War II era. The bulk of their work was published and popularized throughout the 1950s. Central elements of Beat culture are rejection of standard narrative values, spiritual quest, exploration of American and Eastern religions, rejection of materialism, explicit portrayals of the human condition, experimentation with psychedelic drugs, and sexual liberation and exploration. Allen Ginsberg's Howl (1956), William S. Burroughs's Naked Lunch (1959) and Jack Kerouac's On the Road (1957) are among the best known examples of Beat literature.
The Beat Generation, especially those associated with the San Francisco Renaissance, gradually gave way to the 1960s era counterculture, accompanied by a shift in terminology from "beatnik" to "freak" and "hippie." The hippie subculture began its development as a youth movement in the United States during the early 1960s and then developed around the world. Many of the original Beats remained active participants, notably Allen Ginsberg, who became a fixture of the anti-war movement. On the other hand, Jack Kerouac broke with Ginsberg and criticized the 1960s protest movements as an "excuse for spitefulness."
The era essentially commenced in earnest with the assassination of John F. Kennedy in November 1963.
After the January 14, 1967 Human Be-In in San Francisco organized by artist Michael Bowen, the media's attention on culture was fully activated. In 1967 Scott McKenzie's rendition of the song "San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair)" brought as many as 100,000 young people from all over the world to celebrate San Francisco's "Summer of Love."
Upon his release from prison on March 21, 1967, Manson established himself as a guru in San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district, which during 1967's "Summer of Love" was emerging as the signature hippie locale. He strongly implied that he was Christ; he often told a story envisioning himself on the cross with the nails in his feet and hands. He began using the alias "Charles Willis Manson." He often said it very slowly ("Charles' Will Is Man's Son") — implying that his will was the same as that of the Son of Man.
Martin Luther King Jr.'s assassination took place on April 4, 1968. For some time, Manson had been saying that blacks would soon rise up in rebellion in America's cities. Manson explained that this had also been predicted by the Beatles. The White Album songs (released on 22 November 1968), he declared, told it all in code. In fact, he maintained (or would soon maintain), the album was directed at the Family, an elect group that was being instructed to preserve the worthy from the impending disaster.
In early January 1969, the Family moved to a canary-yellow home in Canoga Park, not far from the Spahn Ranch. Because this locale would allow the group to remain "submerged beneath the awareness of the outside world", Manson called it the Yellow Submarine, another Beatles reference. There, Family members prepared for the impending apocalypse, which Manson had termed "Helter Skelter", after the song of that name. Manson had preached to his Family would happen in the summer of 1969.
Gary Hinman supplied Beausoleil with a batch of bad mescaline that Beausoleil in turn sold to the Straight Satans motorcycle gang. When the bikers demanded their money back, Manson ordered Beausoleil to Hinman's residence to get the money. Hinman refused to pay. Manson arrived and proceeded to slice off a part of Hinman's ear with a sword. Atkins and Brunner stitched it up with dental floss afterwards. Manson then ordered Beausoleil to kill Hinman and told him to make it look as if the crime had been committed by black revolutionaries. Beausoleil stabbed Hinman to death on July 27, 1969.
They gained national notoriety after the murder of actress Sharon Tate and four others on August 9, 1969 by Tex Watson and three other members of the Family, acting under the instructions of Charles Manson. According to Bobby Beausoleil, it was actually enacted to convince police that the killers of Gary Hinman were in fact still at large.
Woodstock was a music festival on a dairy farm in Bethel, New York from August 15–18, 1969 which attracted an audience of more than 400,000.
The Altamont Speedway Free Festival was a counterculture-era rock concert December 6, 1969 in northern California. The event is best known for considerable violence, including the stabbing death of Meredith Hunter, two accidental deaths caused by a hit-and-run car accident, and one accidental death by LSD-induced drowning in an irrigation canal.
The counterculture became absorbed into the popular culture with the termination of US combat military involvement in Southeast Asia and the end of the draft in 1973, and ultimately with the resignation of President Richard Nixon in August 1974.
In Internet terminology a troll is someone who comes into an established community such as an online discussion forum and posts inflammatory, rude, repetitive or offensive messages as well as top post flooding and impersonating others -- designed intentionally to annoy or antagonize the existing members or disrupt the flow of discussion. A troll's main goal is to arouse anger and frustration or otherwise shock and offend the message board's other participants, and will write whatever it takes to achieve this end.
One popular trolling strategy is the practice of Winning by Losing. While the victim is trying to put forward solid and convincing facts to prove his position, the troll's only goal is to infuriate its prey. The troll takes (what it knows to be) a badly flawed, wholly illogical argument, and then vigorously defends it while mocking and insulting its prey. The troll looks like a complete fool, but this is all part of the plan. The victim becomes noticeably angry by trying to repeatedly explain the flaws of the troll's argument. Provoking this anger was the troll's one and only goal from the very beginning."
One particularly effective way of provoking anger, and an often used trolling strategy, is the strategy of turning the tables. The troll tries to guess what the other participants are thinking about the troll (for example, "you are a hypocrite") then the troll will accuse the other participants of that.
Trolls want to turn every conversation into a trial with themselves as self-appointed judge jury and executioner.
Experienced participants in online forums know that the most effective way to discourage a troll is usually to ignore him or her, because responding encourages a true troll to continue disruptive posts — hence the often-seen warning "Please do not feed the troll".
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- ↑ A Psychological Analysis of Adolph Hitler. His Life and Legend by Walter C. Langer. Office of Strategic Services (OSS) Washington, D.C. With the collaboration of Prof. Henry A. Murr, Harvard Psychological Clinic, Dr. Ernst Kris, New School for Social Research, Dr. Bertram D. Lawin, New York Psychoanalytic Institute. p. 219 (Nizkor project)
- ↑ Dr. Langer's work was published after the war as The Mind of Adolf Hitler, the wartime report having remained classified for over twenty years.
- ↑ Wikipedia:Saxons#Saxons_in_Britain
- ↑ Wikipedia:Slavs
- ↑ Wikipedia:Muslim conquest of Persia
- ↑ Wikipedia:First Bulgarian Empire and Wikipedia:Bulgars
- ↑ Wikipedia:Schutzstaffel